border gateway protocol

The Border Gateway Protocol is the most commonly used exterior routing protocol. BGP takes care of the functioning of the internet. The BGP standard specifies a number of decision factors, more than the ones that are used by any other common routing process, for selecting NLRI to go into the Loc-RIB. For other uses, see, "Network Routing with Path Vector Protocols: Theory and Applications", IANA registry for BGP Extended Communities Types, BGP Route Reflection: An Alternative to Full Mesh Internal BGP (iBGP), "Route Flap Damping Exacerbates Internet Routing Convergence", "Timer Interaction in Route Flap Damping", International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, "RIPE Routing Working Group Recommendations On Route-flap Damping", "draft-ymbk-rfd-usable-02 - Making Route Flap Damping Usable", "CAT 6500 and 7600 Series Routers and Switches TCAM Allocation Adjustment Procedures", "Internet Touches Half Million Routes: Outages Possible Next Week", "Internet infrastructure 'needs updating or more blackouts will happen, "TCAM — a Deeper Look and the impact of IPv6",, "Quick fix for an early Internet problem lives on a quarter-century later",, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. This reduces the BGP router memory footprint and only installs the components required for dynamic BGP routing. These side-effects would quite likely be worse than the impact caused by simply not running flap damping at all. The BGP Router can act as a Route-Reflector and an RR client. These devices, however, may be perfectly reasonable and useful when used for BGP routing of some smaller part of the network, such as a confederation-AS representing one of several smaller enterprises that are linked, by a BGP backbone of backbones, or a small enterprise that announces routes to an ISP but only accepts a default route and perhaps a small number of aggregated routes. As it is an additional peer for the other 10 routers, it comes with the additional statement count to double that minus 2 of the single Route Reflector setup. Additionally, in a BGP multipath Environment this also can benefit by adding local switching/Routing throughput if the RRs are acting as traditional Routers instead of just a dedicated Route Reflector Server role. Until late 2001, the global routing table was growing exponentially, threatening an eventual widespread breakdown of connectivity. This can then be extended further with features like Cisco's dmzlink-bw which enables a ratio of traffic sharing based on bandwidth values configured on individual links. Examples of common communities include local preference adjustments, geographic or peer type restrictions, DoS avoidance (black holing), and AS prepending options. A route reflector is a single point of failure, therefore at least a second route reflector may be configured in order to provide redundancy. Route Aggregation. Like most other routing protocols, BGP does not detect congestion. It serves as the primary protocol behind global Internet or AS connectivity. The confederated AS is composed of multiple ASs. The BGP design is such that delivery of traffic may not function while routes are being updated. This page was last edited on 9 November 2020, at 16:40. Another factor causing this growth of the routing table is the need for load balancing of multi-homed networks. In large networks, this number of sessions may degrade performance of routers, due to either a lack of memory, or high CPU process requirements. This is true unless you want to use passive mode for debugging or diagnostic purposes. The BGP router selection of the route for transmitting data packets is random with ECMP enabled. An example is the joining of a number of large Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) networks, when OSPF by itself does not scale to the size required. The BGP Router supports configuration of the HoldTimer value according to your network requirements. RR servers propagate routes inside the AS based on the following rules: RR and its clients form a "Cluster". The Border Gateway Protocol was first described in 1989 in RFC 1105, and has been in use on the Internet since 1994. If the route was learned from an external peer the per-neighbor BGP process computes a LOCAL_PREFERENCE value from local policy rules and then compares the LOCAL_PREFERENCE of all routes from the neighbor.

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