(q) Production of transgenic plants and animals. Industrial Applications of Biotechnology: The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Overall, the revenues of U.S. and European biotechnology industries roughly doubled over the five-year period from 1996 through 2000. Omissions? Biotechnology is particularly important in the field of medicine, where it facilitates the production of therapeutic proteins and other drugs. (Gene therapy—insertion of genes encoding a needed protein into a patient’s body or cells—is a related approach.) Genetic engineering in biotechnology stimulated hopes for both therapeutic proteins, drugs and biological organisms themselves, such as seeds, pesticides, engineered yeasts, and modified human cells for treating genetic diseases. (l) Production and development of vaccine to prevent calibacillosis. Today, recombinant human insulin has almost completely driven the other preparation of insulin (isolated from human or animal tissues) from the market. In world, USA, Japan, and many countries of Europe are leaders in biotechnological researchers encouraged by industrialists. Biotechnology has played a significant role in improving human health by producing enriched nutrients food products such as Golden Rice, potato, maize, groundnuts, and soybean etc. Agricultural applications of biotechnology have proved the most controversial. These companies are working for human welfare and opted following areas for research and development: (a) Automated bio-screening for therapeutic agents. The glycosylation pattern of protein products is likely to differ from the endogenous human form due to the different glycosylation preferences of the expression system used. New types of foodstuffs with novel properties are often called functional food. Mineral ore deposits are also becoming more scarce and expensive to recover from earth’s crust. In the same period, acetone, butanol and glycerin were obtained from bacteria. The first therapeutic antibodies, especially monoclonal antibodies, have been on the market since the late 1990s. The Sumerians were able to brew as many as twenty types of beer in the third millennium B.C. In 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) became aware that preclinical studies from multiple clinical trial applications indicated evidence of vector DNA in animal gonadal tissues following extra gonadal administration. Table 22.1 presents chronological history of biotechnology. It contributes much towards the human’s welfare and their health needs. Fermentation is perhaps the most ancient biotechnological discovery. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. (m) Production of bio-pesticide and bio-fertilizers. (j) Microbiological based production of human insulin and interferon’s. There are many more research and investigation processes carried out for improving the future technologies. Since the introduction of therapeutic antibodies onto the market, they have achieved significant turnovers, which are growing continually. leavened bread was produced with the aid of yeast. Biotechnology has also proved helpful in refining industrial processes, in environmental cleanup, and in agricultural production. As mentioned above, recombinant human insulin was the first recombinant medicine in the world, produced by Genentech and brought to market in 1982. In the process of splicing a gene into a production cell, a new organism is created. The document focuses on the development and application of modern biotechnology based on new enabling techniques of recombinant-DNA technology, often referred to as genetic engineering. The field of genetic engineering remains a heated topic of discussion in today’s society with the advent of gene therapy, stem cell research, cloning, and genetically-modified food. Today, biotechnology researchers seek to discover the root molecular causes of disease and to intervene precisely at that level. Biotechnology utilizes cellular and biomolecular processes to create technologies and products that help improve our lives and the nature. Biotechnology is the applied science and has made advances in two major areas, viz., molecular biology and production of industrially important bio-chemical. Some activists and consumer groups have called for bans on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or for labeling laws to inform consumers of the growing presence of GMOs in the food supply. But the biotechnology industry has also expanded its research into the development of traditional pharmaceuticals and monoclonal antibodies that stop the progress of a disease. TOS4. Biotechnology is also known as biological technology. By making useful food, such as bread and cheese, and preserving dairy products, we have done … Within the field of red biotechnology, which deals with applications in human and animal medicine, there are various further distinctions that can be made: biopharmaceutical drug development, drug delivery cell and gene therapies, tissue engineering/regenerative medicine, pharmacogenomics (personalized medicine), system biology, and diagnosis using molecular medicine. However, it demonstrates early acceptance that illness could be passed from an infected individual to another healthy individual, who would then begin to have symptoms of the disease. The traditional pesticide market, on the other hand has been stagnating for years. In USA alone more than 225 companies have been established and successfully working, like Biogen, Cetus, Geneatech, Hybritech, etc. The main emphasis in modern plant biotechnology is the production of transgenic plants. In 1897 the discovery that enzymes from yeast can convert sugar to alcohol lead to industrial processes for chemicals such as butanol, acetone and glycerol. These are foods that have a medicinal effect. The market for 2008 is estimated at a volume of US $16.7 billion (from Data-monitor, November 2003). The oldest biotechnological processes are found in microbial fermentations, as born out by a Babylonian tablet circa 6000 B.C. The observations involved multiple classes of vectors, formulations and routes of administration. Some products are intended to mimic the human counterpart, whereas others are intended to differ from the human counterpart and may be analogues, chemically modified (e.g., pegylated) or novel products (e.g., single chain or fragment antibody products, gene transfer vectors, tissue-engineered products).
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