what is science and technology pdf

Discover science and technology on Oxford Reference with the below sample content: A timeline of life science: from single-celled water creatures to sequencing the human genome, Quotations about science and technology from Oxford Essential Quotations, 'The Universal Genetic Code' from A Dictionary of Plant Sciences, A biography of Lise Meitner from The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, A list of mathematical symbols from The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics, 'The planets: orbital and physical data' from A Dictionary of Astronomy. (�� (�� 0000006018 00000 n (�� (�� (�� (�� A history of the International Space Station 0000014846 00000 n The fallacy arises from the use of the representativeness heuristic, according to which people estimate the probability that something belongs to a particular class by judging how typical it is of that class. (�� 0000018923 00000 n (�� >'sJ�l=�O����Yo�?��9��T�9����o*����YO+K9.��*���6u�68�E��@'�����GF��'���u��0�4�6fV ���nM ���%dRw2Bx��[L3k��P0e6[�0�bu,�6�/ �����3�>@s5�1�yOv&ߩ����m&�o��R�oxָ��Q���2���y���1E�ѽ����]sռ�Zd�l�7�Z3��8�D�!� � @���cF}��/2�/ ��H���&�=ƁV2{a�&�Z�贵��o���og�nِC��YНsX�>�r�;X{))P�Rwx����ui��(i?����y����h��ސ7��W��~�aL@���#p���7�nΏB�(����x�z�NӍ{����q_c�48�4�|k�F�:|f.V��/���� S[2y�R��HO]>vkl�f��:t�fL� a؀a���&�z�d. The defining features of an experiment are manipulation of a conjectured causal factor, called an independent variable because it is manipulated independently of other variables, and examination of the effect of this on a dependent variable, while simultaneously controlling all other extraneous variables that might otherwise influence the dependent variable. (�� (�� /Length 5651 (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� 0000023802 00000 n As known environmental processes are very complex . (�� +��. (�� It can turn round in a glass tube to escape, and it can even learn from experience, although some neuroscientists unsurprisingly question whether this is true learning. 0000028426 00000 n (�� (�� (�� 0000005083 00000 n (�� (�� (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� 0000020799 00000 n 0000022720 00000 n (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� Science encompasses the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, and technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� Dictionary of Chemistry 8e companion weblinks. Although I can’t prove that it’s the most common, the most fashionable misconception is the assumption that phenomena of behaviour and mental experience – the subject-matter of psychology – can be understood and explained exclusively in terms of neural mechanisms. �����8��-���)O���X:��2��B�c���+��f�b�^�O�u\oZ�r���? (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� 0000004395 00000 n The researcher then knows what the probability is of such a large difference under the null hypothesis – the working hypothesis that the independent variable has no effect. 0000042830 00000 n (�� (�� 4 0 obj (�� Water quality assessment is necessary for management of water resources. !��`pXL> ���c�l�2 ��Fsy�&�JD�d@b1(�ClZAM�I粪j8��+t��֙9���ڤ. (�� (�� endobj (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� 0000007212 00000 n (�� • We can characterize technology as made up of these machines, and classify and study them. (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� 0000004190 00000 n (�� (�� (�� (�� 0000002848 00000 n (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� By assigning subjects or participants to an experimental group and a control group strictly at random, and then treating the two groups identically apart from the manipulated independent variable (applied to the experimental group only), an experimenter can control, at a single stroke, for all individual differences and other extraneous variables, including ones that no one has even considered. 0000004835 00000 n (�� 0000004812 00000 n 0000084542 00000 n Science, technology and innovation for sustainable development in the global partnership for development beyond 2015 Thematic Think Piece ITU,OHCHR, UNCTAD, UNEP, UNESCO, (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� No fewer than 86% of the students judged it more probable that that Linda was a bank teller who was active in the feminist movement, although the probability of a conjunction A and B can never be greater than the probability of A. (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� Second, purposeful behaviour can occur naturally without any involvement of neural mechanisms. 0000087738 00000 n (�� (�� (�� 0000001872 00000 n Science, Technology and Society (LE202) Technology as object • The commonsense view identifies technology with certain types of objects, such as tools, machines, electronic devices, consumer products. ��(�� 0000006096 00000 n (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� First, imagine a super-intelligent alien trying to understand a working computer busy printing out my Dictionary of Psychology on a laser printer. (�� PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). 0000077204 00000 n (�� 8 But no one has examined systematically official definitions. For example, the unicellular paramecium, found abundantly in stagnant ponds, moves about, avoids obstacles by swimming round them, gathers food, and retreats from danger. (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� 0000081743 00000 n (�� 0000000016 00000 n (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� (�� H�c``�b``�����X�� �� ,�@����\��y�N�q� �a�8�v�i��:�;f���C5�Ȭ��5�E@��gg�p(X�fH��P0��T}�8x���[X�|-cbb�X�в����,nLi�� �X܁�x���Z��R� �ހ�̫���w�@�KDx9W���"(`��1с��C�=�nA�; LV ��70�h�W`f���J��%������0�3��o`wn`���P$� ����j��9��]��9N0q���:��߀�E���92`�� ������3�4X�$�PX ��Ơ4���y�՗6�� R�lO endstream endobj 1049 0 obj 363 endobj 977 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 972 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 981 0 R /F1 979 0 R /F2 990 0 R /F3 995 0 R >> /XObject 978 0 R /ProcSet 1047 0 R >> /MediaBox [ 0 0 542 721 ] /Contents [ 983 0 R 985 0 R 987 0 R 991 0 R 993 0 R 996 0 R 999 0 R 1002 0 R ] /CropBox [ 0 1 540 721 ] /Rotate 0 /Thumb 949 0 R >> endobj 978 0 obj << /im1 998 0 R /im2 998 0 R /im3 1004 0 R /im4 1006 0 R /im5 1008 0 R /im6 1010 0 R /im7 998 0 R /im8 1012 0 R /im9 1014 0 R /im10 1016 0 R /im11 1018 0 R /im12 1020 0 R /im13 1022 0 R /im14 1024 0 R /im15 1026 0 R /im16 1028 0 R /im17 1030 0 R /im18 1032 0 R /im19 1034 0 R /im20 1036 0 R /im21 1038 0 R /im22 1040 0 R /im23 1042 0 R /im24 1044 0 R /im25 1046 0 R /im26 998 0 R >> endobj 979 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F1 /BaseFont /BookAntiqua,BoldItalic /FirstChar 31 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 750 250 333 500 606 500 889 833 250 333 333 444 606 250 389 250 315 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 250 250 606 606 606 444 833 722 667 685 778 611 556 778 778 389 389 722 611 944 778 833 667 833 722 556 611 778 667 1000 722 611 667 333 606 333 606 500 333 556 537 444 556 444 333 500 556 333 333 556 333 833 556 556 556 537 389 444 389 556 556 833 500 556 500 333 606 333 606 750 750 750 250 500 500 1000 556 556 333 1000 556 333 944 750 750 750 750 278 278 500 500 606 500 1000 333 1000 444 333 778 750 750 611 250 333 500 500 606 500 606 556 333 747 333 500 606 389 747 500 400 549 361 361 333 576 556 250 333 361 333 500 889 889 889 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 944 685 611 611 611 611 389 389 389 389 778 778 833 833 833 833 833 606 833 778 778 778 778 611 667 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 738 444 444 444 444 444 333 333 333 333 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 549 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 980 0 R >> endobj 980 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /BookAntiqua,BoldItalic /Flags 16482 /FontBBox [ -250 -276 1200 931 ] /MissingWidth 759 /StemV 143 /StemH 143 /ItalicAngle -11 /CapHeight 931 /XHeight 651 /Ascent 931 /Descent 276 /Leading 207 /MaxWidth 1000 /AvgWidth 448 >> endobj 981 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F0 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 982 0 obj 1105 endobj 983 0 obj << /Filter /LZWDecode /Length 982 0 R >> stream

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